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Rhesus factor testing is usually conducted on pregnant women to determine the Rh D blood group of the mother and the foetus.By confirming the Rh D status of both mother and foetus, precautions can be made if necessary to prevent any medical conditions caused by rhesus incompatibility..The two most common invasive methods of extracting foetal DNA are chorionic villus sampling (CVS) and amniocentesis (AMC). Trans-cervical sampling involves inserting a catheter through the cervix into the placenta to obtain villi, ultrasound is used to guide the catheter to the site of sampling.It will then be removed from the maternal body and the amniotic fluid extracted will be sent to the laboratory for further testing.Symptoms of the disease may vary in each pregnancy. However, prenatal tests may reveal yellow colouring of amniotic fluid, which is caused by the buildup of bilirubin.After birth, the symptoms of the child are similar to that of incompatible blood transfusion in adults. The yellowing of the umbilical cord, skin and eyes, also known as jaundice, may arise within 24 to 36 hours of birth.DNA will then be isolated from unwanted impurities.The isolated DNA will then be mixed with various reagents to prepare the polymerase chain reactions (PCR) mixture.
When Rh D antigens on red blood cells are exposed to an individual with Rh D- status, high-frequency of Ig G anti-Rh D antibodies will be developed in the Rh D- individual’s body.
By checking the existence of the Rh D gene in the individual’s genome, the presence of rhesus D (Rh D) antigens can be inferred.